The primrose is a plant of the family Primulacee (there are, by approximation, at least two hundred different species, all belonging to the same family). It blooms between March and late April. It can be seen from the range of hills to the Alpine belt, it prefers fertile, moist soils and can grow both in the shadows as in the sun. It grows in moist, deciduous forests and grassland. In fact, all the photographs I made of this flower, I've taken in a very humid forest, traversed by a brook and surrounded by fallow fields and ruined homes. This is a protected species.
It resembles very much the primula veris, and the flowers have a pale yellow corolla (but the flowers have a wide range of colors and, sometimes, can be scented), the flower has five petals, heart shaped, the calyx of the flower is very tight .
I found these days a very abundant blossoming, helped by the warm weather of the spring. This plant blooms when the insects are still very few (I've only seen two bees and a pale green butterfly visit these tender flowers), and because of this, its flowers are often not pollinated. Shakespeare, in "The Winter's Tale," has drawn a poetic metaphor: "the pale primroses who die unmarried".
Its name reflects its early birth; in the language of flowers, it has inspired the symbol of the first youth. Lovers have endeavored to tell the beloved: "The key to my heaven is in your heart." with this flower.
Like everything announcing the new season and the renewal of the year, the primrose is also a symbol of good luck and good wishes (for example in England, where such a plant also known as "bunch of keys").
The primrose is considered a "Plant of Fairies".
This plant is popular for its numerous medicinal properties; it is rich in active ingredients such as saponins, flavonoids, etc.. It is used as an expectorant and against respiratory diseases, it is indeed an excellent sedative for the cough: the dried flowers are used to improve the herbal against the cough, as well as sweating and tranquilizer. The root has a diuretic property, but it is also used against rheumatic pains; it also has a stimulating effect on the sneezing. In homeopathy, it is used in cases of cardiovascular weakness and headache.
The cowslip's wine is obtained by putting the flowers in a bottle and covering them with white wine: this preparation promotes the good circulation. The dried flowers are also used to prepare an aromatic tea but with no exciting action, to perfume the beer and to improve the bouquet of wine. Prepared as candied, they become a delicious dessert.
In the wild, it should not be collected because it is a protected plant, but it may be cultivated. The time of harvest, in this case, is: the roots in autumn, the leaves before flowering and the flowers, the perfect ones, towards the end of March and in April (if they are still in the period of full bloom: this depends on climate and the variety of flower).
The florist's guide and cultivator's directory: Containing coloured figures of the choicest flowers cultivated by florists : including ranunculus, carnations, ... of the most approved methods of culture
PRIMROSES, COWSLIPS, PANSIES AND PEAS
Our common wild flowers of springtime and autumn
SPRINGTIME FLOWERS EASY LESSONS IN BOTANY
Gardens, birds and flowers: A springtime list
Primulas, for garden and greenhouse
Primulas in the garden
http://www.gardenersnet.com/flower/primrose.htm : How to grow Primrose plants, or Primula, a hardy perennial flower, that includes a wide range of varieties.
http://www.plantideas.com/in/in35.html : The fairy primrose, Primula malacoides, has loose clusters of small, delicate flowers borne on thin stems, which tower above the slightly hairy leaves. ...
http://www.gardenguides.com/primrose-flower/ : Primrose Flower. Learn about Primrose Flower on GardenGuides.com. Info and videos including: How to Prune Primrose, How to Winterize Primrose, ...
http://www.plantguide.org/primrose.html : Primrose flower Among the many beautiful blossoms to be found in the field, the forest, or the garden, probably none have served to inspire the poet more ...